By Christian Sarkar
Food insecurity, which refers to the lack of consistent access to enough food for an active, healthy life, can result from a complex interplay of various factors. What are the causes of food insecurity? The main reasons include:
- Poverty: Poverty is a leading cause of food insecurity. People with limited financial resources may struggle to afford nutritious food, leading to inadequate diets and hunger.
- Conflict and Violence: Armed conflicts, wars, and civil unrest disrupt food production, distribution, and access. Conflict-induced displacement often results in food insecurity for affected populations.
- Climate Change: Climate-related factors, such as extreme weather events (droughts, floods, storms), changing rainfall patterns, and rising temperatures, can negatively impact crop yields and food production.
- Natural Disasters: Earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters can destroy crops, infrastructure, and food storage facilities, leading to food shortages.
- Economic Shocks: Economic crises, such as recessions or currency devaluations, can affect food prices and income levels, making food less affordable for vulnerable populations.
- Lack of Access to Markets: People in remote or marginalized areas may have limited access to markets where food is available, making it difficult to obtain essential supplies.
- Limited Agricultural Resources: Inadequate access to arable land, water, and modern farming techniques can limit agricultural productivity and lead to food shortages.
- Crop and Livestock Diseases: Disease outbreaks affecting crops and livestock can devastate food supplies and livelihoods for farmers and herders.
- Inadequate Infrastructure: Poor transportation, storage facilities, and supply chains can result in food spoilage, wastage, and limited access to markets.
- Gender Inequality: Women often face gender-based discrimination that limits their access to resources and opportunities, including the ability to grow or purchase food for their families.
- Corruption and Political Instability: Unstable or corrupt governments may mismanage food distribution systems or prioritize political interests over food security.
- Lack of Education: Limited access to education can reduce people’s awareness of proper nutrition and agricultural practices, perpetuating food insecurity.
- Health Issues: Illnesses, particularly those affecting children, can lead to increased nutritional requirements, making it more challenging for affected households to meet their food needs.
- Social and Cultural Factors: Cultural norms and practices can influence food choices, dietary patterns, and access to certain foods, impacting nutritional outcomes.
- Population Growth: Rapid population growth in some regions can strain food resources, leading to increased demand and potential shortages.
- Global Trade and Market Dynamics: Fluctuations in global food prices and trade policies can affect the affordability and availability of food in specific regions.
- Land Degradation: Soil erosion and degradation can reduce agricultural productivity over time, contributing to food insecurity.
- Water Scarcity: Limited access to clean water for irrigation and drinking can hinder agricultural production and nutrition.
- Inequality: Socioeconomic disparities, including income inequality and unequal access to resources, can result in unequal food access and nutrition within societies.
Food insecurity is a multifaceted challenge that requires a holistic approach involving governments, international organizations, NGOs, and local communities. Addressing the root causes of food insecurity involves efforts to alleviate poverty, promote sustainable agriculture, improve access to education and healthcare, and enhance food distribution systems, among other strategies.
According to Dr. Cary Fowler, the special envoy for food security appointed by President Joe Biden in 2022, concerns regarding global food scarcity by the year 2050 are mounting. The causes behind this impending crisis include diminishing crop yields, inadequate investment in agricultural research, and disruptions in international trade. Dr. Fowler, widely recognized for his pivotal role in establishing the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a repository safeguarding seeds of critical crops, has highlighted the challenges and imperatives associated with food security in a recent address.
The prospect of feeding the growing global population by 2050 necessitates a substantial increase in food production, estimated at 50-60% as indicated by agricultural economists. However, this objective faces considerable hurdles, primarily attributable to the adverse effects of global warming. Projections indicate a potential decline in crop yields ranging from 3% to 12% due to the escalating impacts of climate change. Consequently, the aspiration of achieving this level of food production appears increasingly unattainable.
Dr. Fowler delivered these remarks during the keynote address at the Crawford Fund’s annual conference, titled Global Food Security in a Riskier World, held in Canberra. His distinguished career includes roles with the Global Crop Diversity Trust and the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development.
Despite the challenges, Dr. Fowler emphasized the significant contributions that Australian agriculture can make to address global food security concerns. Australia’s achievements in research and development related to food security within the context of a warming and drying climate are noteworthy, especially considering the formidable challenges posed by suboptimal soil quality and a demanding climate. Additionally, Australia’s burgeoning Indigenous crop industry has garnered international interest.
Nevertheless, Dr. Fowler cautioned against complacency, noting that many countries have underestimated the gravity of the impending food crisis. He pointed out that unprecedented gains in productivity during the past century have led to a substantial increase in food production. However, the world currently grapples with a dire food crisis, with over 700 million people suffering from undernourishment in 2022, compared to 613 million in 2019. This tragic scenario underscores the global nature of the crisis, affecting not only vulnerable nations but also countries like Australia.
The food crisis has been exacerbated by a multitude of factors, including disruptions in supply chains resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, soaring fertilizer prices, and dwindling grain reserves. With 131 out of 196 countries being net food importers, any perturbations in the global food system can have immediate repercussions on international trade.
Dr. Fowler underscored the imperative of increased investment in agricultural research, even if such initiatives yield no immediate returns. He lamented that, when adjusted for inflation, the United States’ agricultural research and development budget remains at the same level as it was half a century ago. He also pointed out that many developed nations, including the United States, have fallen behind China in terms of public investment in agricultural research and development. While private sector investment has played a role, it tends to focus on creating and marketing new food and beverage products rather than addressing critical issues such as public sector plant-breeding programs or the impacts of drought and climate change on food crops.
Dr. Fowler stressed that the allocation of research funding needs to be carefully scrutinized, with an emphasis on addressing the pressing challenges facing food production and security.
So – what are we going to do about it?